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The white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) is a species of groupers that are found in marine ranges of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Epinephelus aeneus or white groupers are fish species that live in rock or muddy substrates in their range distribution. The length of their large range extends from areas of the Mediterranean and to eastern and southern parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Yet, this habitat is only applicable while evaluating the life of adults. Juveniles of this species are found near estuaries and coastal lagoons. Information regarding the total life span of this fish species is not really known. However, we can assume a few things in general. There are some sources like the International Union For Conservation Of Nature (The IUCN) that states that we can assume their life length to be somewhere around 19 years, with the first period of maturity occurring between five to seven years. The generational length of this fish is thought to be around 11 years. Groupers, in general, have a life longevity varying between 9-37 years.The reproduction process of this fish is quite interesting. This species is known to be protogynous hermaphrodites, where females first attain maturity and then change into male fishes after a certain amount of time. The body of the female fish first attains maturity at the age of five to seven years. However, the body changes its sex after reaching the age of 10-13 years. Now, the reproduction of this species results in eggs being released into the water. Even though we do not know the exact number of eggs fertilized, the body of the female fish has somewhere between 789,436 ova to 12,589,242 ova in them, with the number of ova increasing depending on the weight and length of the body.Due to the large-scale overhunting of white groupers to satisfy the need for commercial fisheries, this species has been currently classified as Near Threatened by the International Union For Conservation Of Nature.Being carnivores, the diet of this species includes a wide range of food found in the ocean. They usually include cephalopods and mantis shrimps in their diet. Smaller fish and crabs are also part of their feeding menu.

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